Adapting Story Structure for Any Project

Lydia Sharp is with us today to share some tips on how to use Blake Snyder’s Beat Sheet to help with story structure, so please read on!


Ever since I discovered Save the Cat! by Blake Snyder back in 2009 (which was actually less of a discovery and more of a recommendation by the fabulous Therese Walsh), I’ve never approached my first drafts in the same way again. I used to be an all-out pantser, with only a vague idea of where to begin and where the story would end up on the final page, but no idea whatsoever of how to get there or what needed to happen through the middle.

Then Blake Snyder’s Beat Sheet came into my life and everything made sense. Writing up a Beat Sheet is not the very first step of my story development process, but it does happen early on.

First, I get an idea for a concept and a specific main character to navigate the plot–this is where I hone my logline and 2-3 paragraph pitch. Then I write a possible opening scene, to get a feel for the main character’s voice. Then I create the Beat Sheet.

A Beat Sheet is not meant to be a strict outline. It’s more like a frame of guideposts that light your way from draft to draft. Here is my Beat Sheet for Twin Sense:

GENRE: contemp YA; sub-genre: romantic comedy
LOGLINE: Twin Sense is about a girl who must untangle herself from the love quadrangle she created with her boyfriend, her boyfriend’s twin brother, and her boyfriend’s twin brother’s ex-girlfriend.
START DATE: December 2011
FINISH BY: February 2012

Before I go any further I’d like to emphasize how important it is to have a word count goal before you start. This affects how you break down your Beat Sheet, which will in turn help you write a more focused first draft. Twin Sense is short, so I had very little room to develop one section before it was time to move on to the next. If not for the Beat Sheet I could have very easily gone astray between turning points, resulting in major revision woes on the second draft.

And since the Beat Sheet was meant for screenwriters, not fiction writers, you must calculate the word count milestone for every beat. This is how many words you should have written when you reach each major turning point. But remember this is just a guideline. There is plenty of room for flexibility, especially in a first draft. I also suggest giving yourself a deadline if this is a story not under contract with an editor-issued time frame. Deadlines have a way of motivating you.

Twin Sense has a total of 12,000 words, and there are 110 minutes in a Beat Sheet. Here is how that (roughly) translates:

Opening and Setup: 0 – 1300 words – inciting incident; set the tone – contemporary, teen romance, humor

Theme stated; all major players introduced

Catalyst: 1300 words – new element introduced that forces MC to make a choice

Debate: 1300 – 2700 words – MC unsure of which path to take; unsure of new relationship

Break Into Two: 2700 – 3300 words – MC makes the decision to avoid making a decision (haha)

B Story transition; running gag introduced

Promise of the Premise: 3300 – 6000 words – MC waffles between two love interests, not realizing the mess she’s creating until it’s too late All minor players are introduced or referenced by now

Midpoint: 6000 words – MC realizes the mess she created; now the decision she was avoiding is even more difficult to make

The Big Squeeze: 6000 – 8000 words – stakes raised by outside forces; things the MC thought she knew for certain are now questioned

All Is Lost: 8000 words – an easy solution is clearly impossible; any solution seems impossible

Dark Night of the Soul: 8000 – 9300 words – MC reflects on her situation; seeks solution even if it means personal sacrifice

Break Into Three: 9300 words – MC decides to move forward despite any consequences.  Everything the MC needs to reach the resolution at the climax has been introduced by now, even if she doesn’t realize this until the moment she needs it during the finale

Finale: 9300 – 12000 words – MC fights for what she wants; chaos ensues; story resolution

Closing Image: 12000 words – wrap-up; circle back to the beginning/emphasize theme

(Sorry I had to get really general in the second half to avoid giving away spoilers!)

Notice that each beat only requires a single sentence about what I planned to happen there. This is what gives my creative juices room to flow as I move through the first draft. If you get too detailed in this planning stage it doesn’t usually help much because you end up changing most of those details as you write in “story mode” rather than “brainstorming mode.”

For those of you who are novelists and tend to have trouble writing short fiction, you’re probably making cross-eyes at those numbers, I’m sure. In the average novel, the catalyst occurs right around the 10,000 word mark. In Twin Sense, 10,000 words is almost the entire story–the catalyst occurs less than 1500 words into it. This is why I believe writing short fiction is an excellent way to practice your brisk pacing skills.

Once I have this rough outline written, I reference it throughout the process of writing my first draft. I’m an obsessive word count checker, which may seem counter-productive, but it actually helps me finish my drafts more quickly because I don’t allow myself to run astray. That isn’t to say that I don’t write extra scenes or notes. I do all of that, and it helps tremendously with plot development, character development, and for brainstorming unique twists and turns. But all of that stays outside of the story document until I figure out how to use it.

After the first draft is complete and then major revisions are done, I tighten everything up to make sure it adheres to the story structure as closely as possible without feeling formulaic. If the average reader (not someone who studies the craft of writing) is able to “see” your structure, then your story isn’t ready yet. Blend and weave all the story elements in such a way that it feels like one, solid piece, instead of a bunch of little pieces all tossed together into a box labeled “story.”

It should flow naturally from point to point, never feel forced. Work as many drafts as necessary to make this happen. Beta readers are priceless at this stage.

After Twin Sense was accepted for publication, my editor suggested a lot of cuts (to help with pacing) and a few scenes were completely revised. This, of course, affected the overall structure, so the adjustments continued. I had to make sure my new changes didn’t mess up the flow or inadvertently shift a turning point to the wrong place.

In other words, revisions can create an imbalanced structure if you don’t go back and readjust. That is why you need to think about structure from the time you first think up a story idea all the way to your final edits before publication. It stays with you every step of the way, no matter what your story’s genre, type, or length.

So that’s my story structure process, but every writer has their own. Do you use a Beat Sheet? If so, how? If not, what do you use (if anything)?

Lydia Sharp is a novelist and short fiction author who grew up on the shores of Lake Erie. Then she got tired of finding sand in her clothes so she moved further inland, but she’ll always call Ohio home. Laughing is her favorite pastime. Kissing is a close second. Lydia is also a regular contributor to the Write It Sideways blog and the award-winning Writer Unboxed blog. Her recent release, Twin Sense, is now available for purchase.

As girlfriends of the Taylor twins, Layna and Sherri have only been friends by association. But when Sherri breaks up with Keith (for real this time), and Kevin gives Layna a promise ring (whoa, what?), Layna’s whole world spins off balance. She avoids Kevin’s unwelcome pressure to commit by spending more time with Sherri. 

Without the twins around, Layna and Sherri are tempted to go beyond friendship status. Then Keith tries to win Sherri back, and Kevin apologizes for rushing Layna. Now she’s stuck inside a double-trouble love quadrangle that has her reaching for the consolation cheesecake. The only way to sort out this mess is to make an impossible choice—between the one she wants and the other one she wants—or she might end up with no one.


Becca Puglisi is an international speaker, writing coach, and bestselling author of The Emotion Thesaurus and its sequels. Her books are available in five languages, are sourced by US universities, and are used by novelists, screenwriters, editors, and psychologists around the world. She is passionate about learning and sharing her knowledge with others through her Writers Helping Writers blog and via One Stop For Writers—a powerhouse online library created to help writers elevate their storytelling. You can find Becca online at both of these spots, as well as on Facebook and Twitter.
This entry was posted in Guest Post, Pacing, Plotting, Story Structure, Writing Craft. Bookmark the permalink.

25 Responses to Adapting Story Structure for Any Project

  1. mountain86 says:

    Thank you very much! This is so helpful for this beginner!

  2. febe moss says:

    I looove STC! I still struggle with beats and where they fall with word counts. I get so concerned with making sure the beats fall in juuust the right place.

  3. Lydia Sharp says:

    Oops I said Stina and I meant Julie. haha. I’m always confusing you two! Love you both. 😉

  4. Lydia Sharp says:

    Stina, I’m a huge fan of Bell’s Plot & Structure too! Also, Lisa Cron’s Wired for Story.

  5. Julie Musil says:

    I STILL haven’t read Save the Cat! However, I’m a huge fan of Plot & Structure, by James Scott Bell, and he has a similar style.

    Lydia, your book sounds like such fun!

  6. This sounds like something I might be able to work into my process!! Thanks!!

  7. I love Save the Cat! and this is a wonderful overview of how to use the Beat Sheet. I sheepishly admit that I have yet to put the Beat Sheet to use. A more strict outline seems to work best for me, at least so far.

  8. mshatch says:

    I haven’t used this method but I have become a fan of plotting rather than pantsting. It helps me not get lost 🙂

  9. cleemckenzie says:

    I always love hearing about Save the Cat! It is jam packed with what a writer needs.

  10. This post was very helpful.
    I tend to write the draft first and then go back and plot, but I always have an ending written first.
    Great stuff!

  11. December says:

    I’m a fan of STC too! usually a pantser, but it helps keep me organized and on track. and.. when I’m floundering, I actually use the charting method with his post its and the whole +/-. whoat

  12. Once again – another great post from you guys. I follow a similar structure which I picked up from Story by Robert McKee. Best book on writing I’ve ever read.

    Thanks so much for sharing this 🙂

  13. Great post. I tried to tackle a similar topic in a blog post of mine ( but this is much more thorough. Excellent job!

  14. Rhea Rhodan says:

    I dunno, Lydia, sounds pretty intense. I’m guessing it would save a lot of work with the editing, though.

  15. I’ve got Save the Cat and have read part of it and taken a class from the fabulous Elana Johnson about it. Pretty cool stuff.

  16. Kessie says:

    Oh man, I’ve come around to a very similar method of outlining purely by trial and error! I know our library has this book, I’ll have to pick it up now. I basically write a laundry list of all the major plotpoints, and as different drafts switch things around, I shuffle that outline around with italics and highlights and things. It’s a roadmap I’d quickly be lost without, especially with killer mommy-brain.

  17. LTM says:

    Wow. I have GOT to get this book. Everybody’s been talking about it, but now you’ve shown me the value. And Twin Sense sounds great! Thanks, Becca! <3

  18. Lydia, brilliant as always! I love your posts because you have such a great eyes for story mechanics and structure!

    As Becca said, we’re both huge STC fans. It saved my bacon during Nan when I hit a plot wall, too!

    Thanks so much for showing us the STC beat sheet for your novel too–this really helps! I’m looking forward to reading the story to see how it all plays out!


  19. I can’t imagine planning a book without the help of STC. I’ve read a number of books on story structure, but this one is the best one out there. 😀

  20. Lydia Sharp says:

    Thanks for hosting me, Becca and Angela! And thanks to everyone else for sharing your own thoughts on the writing process. I find this topic incredibly fascinating–I love how everyone has their own methods.

  21. JeffO says:

    I’ve seen tons and tons of people rave about Save The Cat and its methods. I may have to check it out, but I am a Wingman, and I don’t know if I could ever change. Thanks for the informative post!

  22. SA Larsenッ says:

    Love the beat sheet! It’s so helpful. And a huge Congrats goes out to Lydia! I knew her book was being released soon, but hadn’t realized that time was now. Whoot!!

  23. shelly says:

    I too much a panster. I just write the first draft. Let it sit. Read it. Go back and form some kind of outline. That’s how I do it.

    I’ve tried the beforehand outlining but it never works. ***shrugs***

    Good advise though.

    Hugs and chocolate,

  24. i’ve been a fan of the Blake Snyder beat sheet ever since I read it! But I’ve also learned that it’s important not to get so caught up in the rules of story structure that it controls your writing. 🙂

  25. Thanks for sharing how you use the beat sheet. I do try to plot out the major plot points and am trying to be more conscious of word count too. I might try your method and see how it works.

    Good luck with your book.

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