How Morals and Basic Needs Influence a Character’s Strengths

You ever have one of those mornings where you’re just feeling…bleh? Life wasn’t exactly ticking along like clockwork and I was struggling with self-doubt. Then I clicked open my inbox and read the most wonderful message from a reader praising our Trait Thesaurus books. The most interesting thing was that she had been really touched by the front matter, rather than the entries. 

Well, I perked right up at that. It made me think of some of the really cool things Angela and I have accomplished over the past three years—of the hard work, the struggles to come up with front matter that would be as helpful as the entries in our books.

So today, in a state of nostalgia, I’m reposting an oldie but a goodie, which originally aired at Elizabeth Spann Craig’s blog. Enjoy, and if you think of something nice to say to someone today, please don’t hesitate to share it. You never know when someone might need a little encouragement!



Since writing our last book, The Positive Trait Thesaurus: A Writer’s Guide to Character Attributes, I’ve been thinking a lot about personality traits and how they’re formed. Flaws are incredibly important for a character to have—and, let’s be honest: they’re really interesting to read about. But one of the main reasons we fall in love with characters is because we want them to succeed, to achieve their goals and overcome their flaws; this is where the positive attributes come in. The fact is, every character needs both positive and negative traits, and these traits need to be chosen thoughtfully.

When it’s time to create your character and figure out what his traits will be, you should take into account many factors that influence their development: genetics, upbringing and caregivers, past wounds, environment, peers—all of these things absolutely cause certain traits to organically emerge for a character. (For more information on how these factors influence trait development, please see this post on the topic.) Today, I’d like to zero in on what I believe are the two biggest influencers on trait formation: morality and basic needs.


courtesy: Paul Downey @ Creative Commons


Every character—protagonist, villain, sidekick, mentor, etc.—lives by a moral code. His beliefs about right and wrong are deeply embedded in his psyche and will influence his decisions, day-to-day actions, the way he treats people, how he spends his free time—they will impact every area of his life, including his personality. A character will only embrace traits that in some way align with his moral beliefs. Because of this, it’s crucial that we know what our characters believe and value in order to figure out which qualities will define him.

Take, for example, Zack Mayo from An Officer and a Gentleman. Mayo’s morality is largely derived from a traumatic childhood event: finding his mother’s body after she killed herself. Mayo’s father took him in but made it clear that taking responsibility for an impressionable boy wasn’t going to put a crimp in his affinity for drugs and prostitutes.

Fast forward a decade, and Mayo’s moral code has been formed from this sad crucible: look out for yourself because no one else will. Many of his defining traits stem directly from this belief. He’s independent, opportunistic, persistent, apathetic, emotionally withdrawn, and selfish. It would have made no sense for someone with Mayo’s moral code to embrace selflessness or loyalty, because to embody these traits, he’d have to go against his most important belief.

This is why its crucial to know your character’s backstory. All those factors I mentioned earlier? Put those puzzle pieces together to figure out what your character now values, what he believes about right and wrong. Once you know his moral code, you’ll know which traits he’ll embody and which ones he’ll disdain. His defining traits will be pretty much fixed because to reject them, he’d have to reject what he most believes in.

Basic Needs

But sometimes, as authors, a drastic shift in morality is exactly what we want for our characters. This kind of change doesn’t occur easily, but it can happen under the right circumstances. This is where basic needs come into play.

According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, individuals are driven by needs that fall into five categories:

1. Physiological: the need to secure one’s biological and physiological needs
2. Safety and Security: the need to keep oneself and one’s loved ones safe
3. Love and Belonging: the need to form meaningful connections with others
4. Esteem and Recognition: the need to increase one’s sense of esteem
5. Self-Actualization: the need to realize one’s full potential and achieve personal fulfillment

The first level is the most important; if a character’s physiological need isn’t being met, he’ll do whatever it takes to meet that need. Once it’s met, the next level becomes the most crucial. And so on.

If you’re crafting a story and you discover that you need one of your characters to undergo a major moral shift, simply take away one of his basic needs. An awesome example of this is the movie Prisoners. Hugh Jackman’s character is a responsible citizen — morally upright and a family man. But then his daughter goes missing (i.e., his need for safety and security is no longer being met). He’s certain he knows who abducted her, but the police won’t do anything about it. He tries everything he can think of to get his daughter back while working within the confines of his moral beliefs. When those ideas run out, he begins wrestling with the options that don’t coincide with his moral code. Desperate to regain his former equilibrium where all of his needs were being met, his morality shifts. He abducts his daughter’s suspected kidnapper and tortures him in an effort to learn of her whereabouts. His basic belief that all human beings are deserving of dignity and respect has changed—and so have his traits. Respect has turned to cruelty. Centeredness gives way to fanaticism. And all of this can be traced back to one need that is no longer being met.

We’re cruel taskmasters, we authors. But it’s through difficulty that true character emerges, and if we want our protagonists to grow, we have to provide growth opportunities. Know your character’s moral code and choose suitable traits.

If you need your character to make a big change, threaten one of his basic needs. Using these two influencers, you’re sure to come up with a character who is believable and will resonate with readers. For more help, try the Positive Trait Thesaurus.




Becca Puglisi is an international speaker, writing coach, and bestselling author of The Emotion Thesaurus and its sequels. Her books are available in five languages, are sourced by US universities, and are used by novelists, screenwriters, editors, and psychologists around the world. She is passionate about learning and sharing her knowledge with others through her Writers Helping Writers blog and via One Stop For Writers—a powerhouse online library created to help writers elevate their storytelling. You can find Becca online at both of these spots, as well as on Facebook and Twitter.
This entry was posted in Character Traits, Characters, Positive & Negative Thesaurus Guides, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

41 Responses to How Morals and Basic Needs Influence a Character’s Strengths

  1. Pingback: Como virar a vida da sua personagem de cabeça para baixo – Por trás da inventividade

  2. Imam says:

    I have a question regarding moral attributes
    Now let’s say I have an anti-hero main character and his moral belief would be same as Mayo. Now then would Independent be considered a moral attribute in this case since my main character believes in the ideal of survival of the fittest?

    • It really depends on the individual, and the type of wound, and the takeaway, but I would say Independent is a trait that solves a moral belief of being responsible. With a character similar to someone like Mayo, the character believes in being responsible in all things (because he has too, he can only trust himself) but also because it is morally right to do so (something he came to believe after seeing his father fail in this regard.) Independence allows him to take responsibility however he sees fit (for his own life, and to be responsible for others if he chooses) because he makes the choices, he is master of his fate, he doesn’t rely on others because he lived an upbringing where someone rejected responsibility.

      Does this help?

      • Imam says:

        So let’s say my character’s moral belief is that doing everything you can to survive for yourself is right because everyone is out for themselves.
        Now what would be his/her moral attribute on this?
        Could selfish then be considered as one in this case?

        • You have a few things going on here then. Selfishness is a negative trait. He’s choosing to be selfish to avoid being hurt (if he gives himself to others, they may reject him, take advantage, etc. whatever the case may be).Self-sufficiency, however, is a positive attribute and fits with his view of the world.

          But believing everyone is out for themselves is probably a false belief resulting from some sort of bad experience in that past. So the character is operating out of a jaded outlook that all people are out for themselves and don’t care about others, which of course is a broad stroke and so not true. Eventually your character will have to come upon a situation where either someone goes out of their way to help him, and so he will realize his belief about all people being self-serving is false, or he will have to come upon someone who needs help and is worthy of it, and so he chooses to do right by them and put them first, rather than his own needs.

          • Imam says:

            Ah I see
            Well then considered your replies, would you say then my character’s moral attribute would be Responsibility and selfishness being his flaw with Independence being an achievement based trait?

          • To say for sure I would have to read your story, but from what you have shared I would say yes. The question I would ask yourself is what other moral beliefs drive your character? If you see a bigger moral that steers them to be responsible, that would be the primary moral trait. Characters can have more than one moral belief. 😉

  3. Imam says:

    I have question about moral attributes when it comes to anti-heroes
    I read your Positive Traits Thesaurus and I am noticing that moral attributes in an anti-hero works the same as a villain’s moral attribute. Is that actually so?

    • Again, it depends on the character and how deeply entrenched the moral trait is that you are working with. Villains can be very moral, but it is just the way they go about getting their goal that is different and their actions often break other moral beliefs/codes on the way because their goal is more important. An anti-hero sacrifices morals too, but deep down has some sort of “moral line” they won’t cross. If this line is triggered in the story, we may see a shift. Not all villains have a line.

      • Imam says:

        Would then an anti-hero still have a moral attribute as the predictor for the rest of his attributes or could he be like a villain where other traits than his moral attribute be the predictor?

        • Deep down, all people (except sociopaths I suppose) are driven by their most closely held beliefs. Whatever your character holds to be true most of all will steer him, and this will be a moral belief, which manifests as moral attributes.

  4. Pingback: Making your characters believable | The Proof Angel

  5. Celia Lewis says:

    Yet another wonderfully useful inspiring post here. My “Writing Tips” folder is getting fatter (online), and my time plan for the day completely discombobulated. Which is just fine with me!
    Thanks – Glad I finally decided to check out this website!

  6. Pingback: The Monday Post: Links for Writers and Readers | A Vase of Wildflowers

  7. Alex says:

    That’s good basic advice!

    Human psychology is so complex that basically anything is possible. However, the character has to make sense as a whole. Sometimes a slight shift makes sense and then a shift a little bit bigger would bring the character totally out of balance. It’s almost impossible to give rational pointers for where that line is, one has to feel it intuitively.

    I guess for the right reasons and put in the right circumstances, almost anybody would do almost anything.

    It’s scary, when you think about it.

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  9. Saumya says:

    This is so helpful as I think of my old manuscript and try to write a new one. Your website has been such a great source of support and inspiration throughout my writing journey.

  10. :Donna Marie says:

    Becca, this is one of the best articles I’ve ever read in respect to getting to the crux of what shapes us as people. The books on psychology, etc. are definitely great resources. I have a couple here. This is just fantastic. Have I mentioned before, at any point in time, HOW MUCH I LOVE WHAT YOU AND ANGELA GIVE US!!!? Thank you! 😀 😀 😀

  11. Lester Curtis says:

    I’m about to have my MC climb over a fence–trespass–to attempt to get help for an injured friend . . .

  12. Calisa Rhose says:

    I have to say this is the most understandable post on the topic I’ve ever read! I actually got what you said, especially the very last paragraph (Prisoners was a great movie, btw) rang all my bells loud and clear. 🙂 I may have to print this up to review now and then. Thanks!

  13. I always enjoy your and Angela’s advice. Writers for Writers has become my favorite source of writing do’s and dont’s. Thank you so much for sharing your expertise and done with such flair and fun.

  14. Wow. What a wonderful, rich post. This is one of the most helpful posts I’ve read in a long time. I’ll be posting the link on my blog. Thanks for this.

  15. Mart Ramirez says:

    Great tips, Becca. Thank you for sharing! I’m a firm believer of if you like something, don’t be afraid to compliment that person. It’s so true. You really don’t know whether a good word or bad word will break or make that person <3

    • Becca’s goofing off in NY, so I am chiming in–you are so right! Kindness can go a long way. And sometimes ever when a person appears upbeat and happy, there is stuff going on underneath. Everyone needs reinforcement that they matter, are valued and that people care. <3 Have a great day, Mart!

    • I couldn’t agree more, Mart. It’s always surprising to me how people are so quick to say something negative, but if they think of something nice, they’re hesitant.

  16. Sam Taylor says:

    A very thought-provoking post–thank you! I love your Emotion Thesaurus, and I have both the Positive and Negative Trait Thesaurus on my Christmas list. 🙂

  17. Well done, Becca! Thanks for the tips on strengthening our story characters. This is one of my favorite blogs.

  18. I agree that the front matter of your thesauri is great – it’s something all too lacking in many reference books.

    Great read of Prisoners. Did you see the director’s next film (Denis Villeneuve)?

    It’s called Enemy and has some similar issues, but this time in a quieter – and stranger – way. It’s very … Canadian.

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