Goal-Oriented Storytelling: Attachment

Imagine you’re playing your first game of Scrabble with a friend. You haven’t been taught the rules of the game, but you know the general idea is to make words and place them on the game board. Your friend gives you letter tiles and tells you to take your turn. Looking at your letters, you might make the word you think of first or search for a word you find pleasing, but you’re unlikely to choose the word and placement with the highest score. Perhaps you’ll have a great afternoon, but you can’t expect to win the game.

Storytelling is like this. Of course, winning in storytelling is very subjective, but most fiction writers want their stories to be well received by readers. That’s their win condition. To help writers get a win, I created the ANTS framework. Instead of focusing on what goes into a story (like characters, plots, and settings), ANTS is a model for what should result from it. While no one can calculate exactly how a story will score, using this framework is like knowing that in Scrabble, longer words score higher, less frequent letters score higher, and words placed on colored squares score higher. With ANTS, you can strategize.

The acronym stands for the combined factors that typically result in a reader-approved story: AttachmentNoveltyTension, and Satisfaction. I’ll be discussing each one in a four-part series of posts at Writers Helping Writers, starting today with the first one.

Want to know how to hook readers and get them really attached to your story?

Attachment represents how much your readers care about the elements in a story. If they hang on to every word because they desperately want to see the main character succeed or the love birds get together, you’ve created high attachment. While any element of the story could earn attachment, characters are by far the biggest source. That’s why the vast majority of stories have one or more main characters for readers to bond with.

On its own, attachment improves readers’ enjoyment and gives them a reason to continue. However, it’s also a prerequisite for another ANTS effect I’ll describe later: tension. If you’re reading a book and you think the protagonist should die in a garbage fire, you won’t care that they might lose their job. Until your story earns attachment, you can’t expect readers to sit on the edge of their seats. Conversely, the more attachment readers have to elements of your story, the more emotionally powerful your story becomes.

Just with those basics, your strategy when storytelling might change. Instructional text on characterization usually emphasizes creating complex characters with deep motivations, what we call a “well-developed character.” While this is great advice, it can obscure what’s most critical from a goal-oriented standpoint: that your protagonist is liked. After reading conventional writing instruction, many new writers become so focused on creating character flaws and characters arcs that their protagonists put off readers. This deprives the whole story of a solid foundation.

For our purposes, a likable character is one that readers latch onto. If your main character is a jerk, but readers laugh at their quips and want to see them become a better person, you’ve created a likable character. Now let’s say you want to make your protagonist well-liked by a general audience. Here’s what you might give your character to help meet that goal:

  • Selflessness: Moral values play a big role in likability. While what’s considered moral varies from culture to culture, it’s difficult to go wrong with a character who puts others’ needs before their own. This can come in many forms, from doing essential but thankless work, to giving up a meal for someone who needs it more.
  • Sympathetic problems: It’s easy for readers to get attached to characters who deserve better in life than what they’re getting. When characters have hardships that feel genuine and are no fault of their own, they become the underdog everyone cheers for.
  • Novelty: Portraying your characters as funny, fresh, or intriguing will make them more likable to readers. But be careful. If you put too much emphasis on a simple gimmick, you might end up with an annoying character.
  • Strengths and flaws: In general, a character with no strengths is unpleasant, and a character with no flaws is insufferable. The safest bet for a new writer is to create a character with mostly positive traits but one noticeable flaw that can be addressed with a character arc.

If you’re aiming for readers of a specific group, such as school-aged black girls or middle-aged white men, you have another option. You can create a character they’ll identify with. When people read about characters with traits they associate with themselves, they project themselves onto that character. Attachment quickly follows. The basic technique is to create a character of the right demographic with relatable or admirable personality traits. These characters don’t need flaws to be liked by many members of the target demographic, but giving them flaws and other likable characteristics will still widen their appeal.

How do you know if you’ve succeeded? Thankfully, ANTS isn’t that difficult to measure. Ask your readers questions like these:

  • Did you sympathize with the protagonist?
  • Did you want the protagonist to succeed?
  • Did the protagonist’s arc feel compelling?

Because interpretations of characters are so individual, I recommend asking at least three readers before making judgments based on the answers.

Overall, the biggest challenge of attachment is how long it takes. People need to get to know characters before caring about them. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to get to know someone while they’re running for their life or fighting off an ambush. This is why so many story openings alternate between the action and the main character. The writer might have a prologue to introduce the big threat, then dedicate the first chapter to a personal moment for the main character, then go back to the big threat again. This dual plot structure offers many benefits, but if you can open your story with a compelling conflict that also helps readers understand your main character, that’s even better.

The good news is that with enough time, readers may not only care about the characters but also about the places in the story. Attachment is also the most enduring effect in ANTS. Once your story has earned attachment, it can carry readers through any boring or unpleasant patches your muddlesome middle might harbor.

Even though attachment takes time to build and tension isn’t as effective without attachment, you can still entertain your readers immediately. Ready to move on? I’ve also covered novelty, tension and satisfaction.

Chris Winkle is the editor-in-chief of Mythcreants, an online magazine dedicated to fantasy and science fiction storytelling. You can read more of her articles on writing or listen to her talk about stories on The Mythcreant Podcast.

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[…] for understanding what a story needs to keep readers engaged. Previously, I’ve covered attachment and novelty. Now it’s time to look at the big reason why stories have a plot structure: […]

1 year ago

Nice post! Seems like an effective technique to craft a story!


[…] In the first post of my four-part series, I introduced ANTS, my framework for helping storytellers make strategic choices that increase reader engagement. ANTS stands for the effects a storyteller should seek to cultivate in their story: attachment, novelty, tension, and satisfaction. Last time, I covered the basics of attachment. Now it’s time for a closer look at novelty. […]

Julie Hiner
2 years ago

Great post! I appreciate the specific, doable advice. Really looking forward to the rest of the series.

2 years ago

I’m looking forward to this series, too. Attachment is obviously a huge part of any successful novel, no matter the genre, audience, writing style, etc. Sometimes we get so caught up on the other elements—most of which are also important—that we forget about the deal-breakers. This is definitely one of them, and it doesn’t get a the attention it warrants, imo.

Chris Winkle
2 years ago

Thanks Becca!

Ingmar Albizu
2 years ago

Great article, Chris!
Introducing character, plot, and world-building in the first page is such a tricky proposition, especially when writing genre fiction like science fiction and fantasy.
I guess you are suggesting to introduce the character and main conflict first.
For years I believed ‘plot first, characters as an afterthought’.
It took me a while to understand readers need a character to connect before they can get invested in the plot.
I am looking forward to your follow-up posts!

Chris Winkle
2 years ago
Reply to  Ingmar Albizu


Yeah, I think opening can be more difficult in speculative fiction because the world is one more thing the audience needs to become familiar with. But in some cases, the world can actually engage readers before the characters and plot can. I’ll discuss that further in my next post.

2 years ago

Great stuff, Chris 😀 I now have ANTS in my PANTSer 😉 (Though I’m more of a plotter 😀 )

Chris Winkle
2 years ago
Reply to  :Donna

I do love me some ANTS puns! 🙂

2 years ago

Thanks for this blog! I’m currently writing what I feel like is a risky story–a romance where a girl is racist and hateful against the guy … until they get stranded together and she learns to see past their differences. I feel like it could be a powerful story, but at the same time, I have to make sure her racism makes sense and she doesn’t come off as someone you want to see die in a garbage fire. 😀

Chris Winkle
2 years ago
Reply to  Kessie

Hi Kessie,

That is indeed a tricky one. With stories that contain big trade-offs like having a protagonist with a really unlikable trait, it’s important to think about what you are getting from that trade off, and whether it’s worth it.

We actually discuss this type of subject matter a lot on my own blog, Mythcreants, and I have a post specifically about the type of storyline you’re talking about. I’m afraid it doesn’t have great news for you, but if you’d like some quick advice on how to make your story work, we have an Ask a Question form where you can share a few private details about your story. Here’s the article: https://bit.ly/2PLqMtH

It’s great that you know the idea is risky. The more you know, the better you’ll be able to take on a big challenge!

2 years ago

Great post, Chris! I am looking forward to the entire series.

I agree that the attachment length isn’t always something you can set your watch by, which is why I’m glad you mentioned it. This is where really understanding the genre and in particular, one’s own readership, will really come into play. Our gut instinct becomes more tuned in as we go along, I believe. 🙂

Chris Winkle
2 years ago

Thanks Angela! I think getting attachment going is one of the biggest reasons beginnings are so tricky. Having a plan for how you’ll engage your readership in the meantime is always wise.